copyright © 2002 by Larry Solomon
Half Notes (or other "white notes") indicate notes that are a part of an important structural harmony, or domain.
Quarter Notes indicate motion (normally stepwise) to and from domain notes.
Different types of notes from longest to shortest indicate differing structural levels of voice leading, from remote to immediate.
Notes with separate flags indicate immediate auxiliary notes, such as incomplete neighbors and bass leaps of 4ths or 5ths. They should be accompanied by a slur or arrow to indicate the primary note of function.
Parenthesized notes represent those that are implied but not actually present, or they represent notes marked for deletion on the next structural level.
Beamed notes connect notes in one domain harmony. They are the notes that are part of this harmony; i.e., harmonic tones, while intervening black notes connected to the same beam show the stepwise voice leading between domain notes. A solid beam indicates a chord arpeggiation, while a broken beam represents note repetitions. Other authors use beams to show large scale connections in general.
A broken beam with "to" indicator represents a long term connection.
A slur shows the voice leading connections between one domain and the next domain, although they are most often used by other authors to show voice leading in general. The broken slur is used to show voice leading when notes repeat.
Voice exchange is shown with crossing lines between
the voices involved.
A structural soprano line may be shown with carreted numbers. Uncarreted numbers may be used for more immediate levels in any voice.
Unfolding; a single part splits into two voices
Other Recommended Symbols
Circled notes represent reinstated notes from a
previous level of structure.
Useful Abbreviations Found on Schenkerian Graphs
|CS||consonant skip (leap, arpeggiation)|
|D or Div||divider, usually a V chord, that marks sections.|
|DF||chord of double function; i.e., one that exhibits both immediate and remote voice leading functions.|
|NC||passing or neighbor chord|
|Kopp||coupling (German: Koppelung); i.e., showing octave transfer or register change|
|6 - 5 - 6
10 - 10 - 10
|Arabic numbers may be used for scale degrees or for intervals.|
|V||Roman numbers and figured bass are used for chords.|
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